LID / STORMWATER BLOG

Note: Listings of commercial organizations or products are not endorsements, and are presented for informational purposes only. This list will evolve as additional resources become available and as more groups and organizations carry out or conduct research on stormwater management practices.
BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database The American Society of Civil Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency provide an online, searchable database of more than 90 studies evaluating the effectiveness of various stormwater best management practices for surface water quality protection.
Preliminary Data Summary of Urban Stormwater Best Management Practices The Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Water provides an online version of a study conducted to explore the use of best management practices within the "Effluent Guidelines." Includes a link to the Agency's National Stormwater Best Management Practice Database
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BIORETENTION, RAIN GARDENS
BIORETENTION SOIL MIX REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WESTERN WASHINGTON, a Technical Memorandum prepared by Curtis Hinman, WSU Extension Faculty, for the Puget Sound Partnership, January 2009
Low Impact Development Technical Workshop Series: Bioretention Compilation of national and international research on bioretention. Compiled in 2008 by Curtis Hinman, WSU, for the LID Technical Workshop Series, 2008-09.
Bioretention Applications A fact sheet by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Low Impact Development Center, Inc., on bioretention, or rain gardens. Two case studies demonstrate the potential to use low impact development practices in the design of new parking facilities and as retrofits for existing parking facilities to reduce runoff volume and remove pollutants. Includes monitoring data. | PDF
Researching and implementing new strategies for stormwater management
WSU Pierce County Extension offers three tools on their Low Impact Development Web page for planning, designing and constructing rain gardens: the Rain Garden Handbook for Western Washington Homeowners; a companion rain garden flyer; and a technical paper examining the flow control benefits of rain gardens.
Natural Drainage Systems Overview City of Seattle ’s Natural Drainage Systems Projects feature bioretention swales integrated into the redesign of residential neighborhoods. The Street Edge Alternatives (or SEA) Street Project, won a national award for excellence.
Reining in the Rain: A case study of the City of Bellingham's use of rain gardens to manage stormwater (March 2004) Case study produced by Puget Sound Partnership detailing the City of Bellingham ’s retrofitting of two parking areas with bioretention cells (or rain gardens). By using this technique rather than a conventional in-ground vault system, the city saved 75 to 80 percent in construction costs. | PDF
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CLEARING AND GRADING, SITE PLANNING, EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL AND INSPECTION
Low Impact Development Technical Workshop Series: Clearing and Grading, Site Planning, Erosion and Sediment Control, and Inspection. Compilation of research, prepared by Curtis Hinman, WSU, in 2008 for the LID Technical Workshop Series, 2008-09.
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GREEN / SUSTAINABLE BUILDING
Build a Better Kitsap Build a Better Kitsap is a partnership between the Home Builders Association of Kitsap County and Kitsap County Public Works to build safe, quality homes while preserving the environment.
Built Green - Master Builders Association of King and Snohomish Counties Program educates builders and home buyers about environmentally friendly home construction methods and practices.
Sustainable Sources Links to sustainable development resources including environmentally friendly housing design concepts, a directory of sustainable development professionals, conference listings, and commercial sites.
City of Seattle Green Building Provides customized green building education, early design guidance, technical assistance, incentives, and recognition for projects.
Northwest EcoBuilding Guild An association of builders, designers, homeowners, tradespeople, manufacturers, suppliers and others interested in ecologically sustainable building.
The City of Portland's Green Building Resource O ffers free technical assistance for development projects in Portland, educational tours and classes, project guidebooks and grants that support innovative green building practices.
U.S. Green Building Council LEED Program The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System™ is the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high performance green buildings
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HIGHWAY RUNOFF
Caltrans Division of Environmental Analysis Information about monitoring highway runoff from California Department of Transportation.
National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis An online searchable bibliography of more than 2,500 citations pertinent to urban and highway runoff quality and management including data and scientific studies.
The Green Highways Partnership (GHP) A voluntary, public/private initiative that is revolutionizing the nation's transportation infrastructure. Through concepts such as integrated planning, regulatory flexibility , and market-based rewards , GHP seeks to incorporate environmental streamlining and stewardship into all aspects of the highway lifecycle.
Washington State Department of Transportation’s Water Quality – Stormwater Program Includes WSDOT’s Highway Runoff Manual, permit information, monitoring and research, guidance, and erosion and sediment control.
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LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT - CASE STUDIES
Natural Approaches to Stormwater Management: Low Impact Development in Puget Sound Innovative techniques for builders and developers, local planners, engineers and others to better protect Puget Sound from the harmful effects of development. From the Puget Sound Partnership (March 2003) | PDF
The Kitsap Home Builders Foundation received a Public Involvement and Education (PIE) grant to retrofit the office site of the Home Builders Association of Kitsap County as a showcase of low impact development techniques.
Reining in the Rain: A case study of the City of Bellingham's use of rain gardens to manage stormwater (March 2004).   Case study produced by Puget Sound Partnership  detailing the City of Bellingham ’s retrofitting of two parking areas with bioretention cells (or rain gardens). By using this technique rather than a conventional in-ground vault system, the city saved 75 to 80 percent in construction costs. | PDF     
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LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT - COSTS
Cost Analysis of Natural vs.Traditional Drainage Systems Meeting NDS Stormwater Goals Cost comparison between conventional stormwater management and City of Seattle ’s Natural Drainage Systems projects. | PDF
Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices EPA report provides national information in the form of case studies on the costs and benefits of using LID strategies and practices to help protect and restore water quality.
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LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT– GENERAL INFORMATION
Low Impact Development brochure The Puget Sound Partnership’s popular brochure describes low impact development practices and their benefits to the environment and the economy.

    >> Download the 8-1/2 x 11 viewable PDF version
(2.5 MB)


    >> Download the 11 x 17 print-ready PDF version
(1.4 MB)
Low Impact Development Center, Inc. A non-profit water resources research group with a mission of conducting research and training on low impact development and sustainable stormwater management. Publications, pictures, and other resources are available on this site.
Low Impact Development (LID) Urban Design Tools U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-funded web site provides general information on LID, standards and specifications for the proper use of LID techniques, recommendations for specific types of projects, and more.
Low Impact Development (LID): A Literature Review A literature review of studies on the effectiveness of low impact development techniques conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Low Impact Development Center, Inc., a non-profit organization located in Maryland. |PDF
Low Impact Development Pilot Project Practices A fact sheet by the Naval District, Washington, containing descriptions of several low impact development practices, including bioretention, permeable pavers, disconnecting impervious surfaces, rain barrels, street tree filters, storm drain inlets and soil amendments. | PDF
National Low Impact Development Conference (2007) Proceedings
Papers from presentations given at the March 12-14 National Low Impact Development Conference in Wilmington, N.C.
A Sustainable Approach to Stormwater Management City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services’ page on Sustainable Stormwater includes information on their Green Streets, Eco-roof and Landscaping programs, and more.
The National LID Clearinghouse A web-based clearinghouse that allows researchers, practitioners and program managers to collaborate and efficiently disseminate and share information with local governments, states, builders, developers, stakeholders, and environmental groups.
2001 Low Impact Development Conference Abstracts and biographies from the conference sponsored by the Puget Sound Partnership  and numerous partners. | PDF
Good to be Green From green building products to certified green building professionals, Good to be Green provides all the materials needed for any residential or commercial green building project. Through Good to be Green, you can examine individual products and once you've found materials for your project you can contact manufactures and professionals directly. Access is free and requires no registration.
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LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT– MAINTENANCE
Maintenance of Low Impact Development Facilities (Revised Jan. 2007) Recommendations for maintenance of LID facilities, developed by Curtis Hinman, WSU Extension – Pierce County . | PDF
Practically Easy Landscape Maintenance: A Care Manual for Natural Drainage Systems Care Manual for Natural Drainage Systems projects, Fall 2006 Edition (PDF) that outlines the responsibilities of the City and of residents in maintaining natural drainage systems. | PDF
High Point Community: Right of Way and Open Space Landscape Maintenance Guidelines Maintenance guide for the City of Seattle’s High Point LID project. Contains landscape maintenance information applicable to other projects. | PDF
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LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT — ROADS PROJECTS
Low Impact Development for Roads—Military Road South at 272nd St.
King County Department of Transportation, Roads Division, received a $424,375 grant from Washington State Department of Ecology to improve stormwater at the intersection of Military Road S. and S. 272nd through the use of low impact development practices.
Natural Drainage Systems Overview City of Seattle ’s Natural Drainage Systems Projects feature bioretention swales integrated into the redesign of residential neighborhoods. The Street Edge Alternatives (or SEA) Street Project, won a national award for excellence.
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LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT– TECHNICAL GUIDANCE
Low Impact Development: Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound. Comprehensive guidance manual provides stormwater managers and site designers with a common understanding of the many facets of LID and provides specific recommendations for use of LID in the Puget Sound basin. (January 2005).
Low-Impact Development Design Strategies: An Integrated Design Approach The national low impact development manual produced by Prince George's County, Maryland, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency presents goals and principles for this technology, and guidance on site planning, design practices, erosion and sediment control considerations, maintenance needs, and techniques for public outreach. | PDF
Low-Impact Development Hydrologic Analysis The hydrology supplement to the national low impact development manual provides information on hydrologic analysis procedures for this technology. | PDF
Seattle Public Utilities technical resources An array of technical resources for other municipalities with an interest in implementing natural drainage systems (NDS) projects.
Pierce County Public Works and Utilities: Low Impact Development Technical Guidance
Site aims to provide clear guidance to lower barriers of LID acceptance in Pierce County . Information includes zoning areas where LID is required, an example of an LID Site Analysis Report (coming soon), guidelines for rain garden and bioretention systems and checklists for operations and  
maintenance guidelines.
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MONITORING, RESEARCH AND MODELING
Bioretention Cell and Bioretention Swale Research: Flow Control and Pollutant Removal Capability Compilation of research on bioretention, from the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound, Puget Sound Partnership and WSU Pierce County Extension
Hydrologic Monitoring of the Seattle Ultra-Urban Stormwater Management Projects: Summary of the 2000-2003 Water Years Multi-year hydrologic monitoring report of Seattle ’s Natural Drainage Systems projects by Dr. Richard Horner et al, University of Washington . | PDF
Long-Term Stormwater Quantity and Quality Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems Results of six-year monitoring study of various pervious pavement systems at King County parking lot, by Brattebo and Booth, University of Washington . | PDF
Low Impact Development Technical MaterialsThe Puget Sound Partnership contracted with CH2M Hill to assess the applicability of low impact development techniques in Puget Sound . CH2M Hill developed three technical memoranda for this project

     Review of Low-Impact Development Techniques (PDF 1,906k)

     Analysis and Recommendations for the use of LID Techniques in Puget Sound (PDF 4,303k)

     Suggested Adaptations to BMPs in the Department of Ecology’s Stormwater Management      
      Manual  for Western Washington to Include the Benefits of LID Techniques
(PDF 1,468k)
Magnusson Klemincic Associates Follow the link to the Seattle Green Roof Evaluation Project final newsletter.
Monitoring Performance City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services’ Web site on environmental monitoring. Includes reports on green roofs, bioretention and curb extensions.
Permeable Paving Research Compilation of research on pervious pavement, from the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound, Puget Sound Partnership and WSU Pierce County Extension
The University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center Serves as a technical resource for stormwater practitioners by studying a range of issues for specific stormwater management strategies including design, water quality and quantity, cost, maintenance, and operations. The field research facility serves as a site for testing stormwater treatment processes, for technology demonstrations and workshops. The testing results and technology demonstrations are meant to assist in the planning, design, and implementation of effective stormwater management strategies for resource managers.  
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NEWS ITEM: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT
A Parking Lot More Friendly to the Earth ( 05.02.07 Bremerton ) - Home Builders break ground on a project showcasing porous pavement and other methods to absorb runoff. | Kitsap Sun
Note: This project was initially funded by the Puget Sound Partnership's Public Involvement and Education (PIE) fund.
Nonpoint Source: News-Notes, August 2005 The Puget Sound Partnership’s outreach efforts to encourage low impact development (LID) practices are paying off according to the August 2005 issue of Nonpoint Source News-Notes. The newsletter from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency credits the work of a diverse intergovernmental team for getting local jurisdictions to adopt LID practices. | PDF
Nonpoint Source: News-Notes, May 2005 The May 2005 issue of Nonpoint Source News-Notes mentions LID activities in Puget Sound . The newsletter looks at several places across the country where LID is taking hold, including Pierce County 's Kensington Estates development. "Low Impact Development Pays Off" Page 7. | PDF
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NEWS ITEM: ORDINANCES
Langley proposes new rules for homes (Oct. 22, 2005) The city of Langley is proposing to lessen the impacts of development on the community and environment by adopting "low impact development" rules   | PDF
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ORDINANCES
Kitsap Homebuilders Foundation: Low Impact Development The Kitsap Homebuilders Foundation received a grant from the Department of Ecology to establish countywide LID standards and educate the development community, and a PIE grant from the Puget Sound Partnership  to retrofit their property to include LID techniques and educate the development community, elected officials and others.
Local Regulation Assistance Project   In 2005 and again in 2006,   the Puget Sound Partnership spearheaded two project to help a total of   11 cities and seven counties integrate low impact development into their regulations and development standards. Read summaries of these projects, as well as directions for how to request the full recommendations on CD.
Low-Impact Development Strategy for Green Cove Basin: A Case Study in Regulatory Protection of Aquatic Habitat in Urbanizing Watersheds  City Of Olympia | PDF
Partial listing of Puget Sound jurisdictions whose ordinances include low impact development

Island County
City of Issaquah

City of Lacey

City Of Olympia

Pierce County

Snohomish County

City of Tumwater

Washington State Department of Transportation
Projects – LID Ordinance Development LID Center web site describing the center’s work on ordinance development on the east coast.
Pierce County web page contains the county's chapter on LID (Chapter 10), site analysis checklists, and other reports
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PERVIOUS (PERMEABLE) PAVEMENT
Low Impact Development Technical Workshop Series: Permeable Paving Compilation of national and international research on pervious pavement. Compiled in 2008 by Curtis Hinman, WSU, for the LID Technical Workshop Series, 2008-09.
Permeable Pavement From the National Association of Homebuilders Research Center’s ToolBase Services.
Pervious Concrete Pavement From the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association.
Porous Asphalt Pavement with Recharge Beds: 20 Years and Still Working Article by Michele Adams of Cahill Associates on 20 years’ of experience installing porous asphalt systems
Science & Innovations - Porous Pavement
The City of Olympia has been installing sections of porous pavement since 1999. The city's Web site contains project reports, costs and benefits, maintenance information, and technical specifications.
Use of Pervious Concrete Eliminates over $260,000 in Construction Costs At the Stratford Place residential project, the community of Sultan, Wash., discovered how pervious concrete can eliminate puddles on their streets and sidewalks, eliminate the need for large ponds, save the developer a lot of money and provide better protection for the environment.
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ROOFTOP RAINWATER HARVESTING
Combined Sewer Overflows: How does your roof fit into the picture? Many rooftops are connected to the City of Seattle ’s Combined Sewer System, so the City is evaluating whether disconnecting roof downspouts from the Combined Sewer and redirecting that runoff into rain gardens or cisterns will help reduce combined sewer overflow events. The Lakewood neighborhood (in the Seward Park area) is under consideration for a downspout disconnection pilot project. The City is conducting a survey in that neighborhood to decide about how to design the pilot. | PDF
Rainwater Harvesting From Rooftop Catchments A comprehensive article from the Organization of American States.
Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting Examples of several rooftop rainwater harvest systems located around Puget Sound . From “Natural Approaches to Stormwater Management,” Puget Sound Partnership.
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SMART GROWTH
Smart Growth Online From the Smart Growth Network, whose goal is to encourage development to better serve the economic, environmental and social needs of communities. Site offers information on sustainable urban design and the cost of urban sprawl as well as networking resources.
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SOIL AMENDMENTS
Achieving the Post-construction Soil Standard King County guidance document on how to meet the standard for post-construction soil quality. | PDF
Washington Organic Recycling Council's Soils for Salmon Program Links to publications highlighting the use of compost amendments in soils for preventing degradation of water quality and salmon habitat as a result of development.
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STATE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
Washington State Department of Ecology Ecology’s Stormwater page offers information on the Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington, stormwater permits, opportunities for training and more.
Washington State Department of Ecology’s Water Quality Program Water quality issues as well as a link to Ecology’s Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington, technical information, sustainability resources, other organizations and community outreach programs concerned with water quality.
Washington State Department of Transportation’s Water Quality - Stormwater Program Research projects and publications on stormwater management for transportation projects.
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STORMWATER EDUCATION
Protecting Washington's waters from stormwater pollution
Education guide from Washington Department of Ecology. July 2007. | PDF
Stormwater Education Programs: Selected Examples from Puget Sound Highlights 18 local programs from around Puget Sound that educate and involve the public about stormwater and water quality. | PDF
The Center for Watershed Protection A non-profit corporation that provides local governments, activists, and watershed organizations around the country with the technical tools for protecting our streams, lakes and rivers. The Center has developed and disseminated a multi-disciplinary strategy to watershed protection that encompasses watershed planning, watershed restoration, stormwater management, watershed research, better site design, education and outreach, and watershed training.
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STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
2000 Puget Sound Water Quality Management Plan   - Stormwater Program Details the elements of a local, comprehensive stormwater management program, necessary to protect Puget Sound from the harmful effects of land development and stormwater runoff. | PDF
Case Study of the Kitsap Surface and Stormwater Management Program  Describes Kitsap County’s innovative surface and stormwater management program that identifies and addresses problems through a countywide utility and interagency cooperation. (April 2004) | PDF
Comprehensive Stormwater Program for Local Governments Fact Sheet | PDF (677K)
Coping with Stormwater -- How much does it cost?. The University of Washington's Water Center prepared a companion fact sheet to the reports: "Costs and damages of stormwater runoff in the Puget Sound region." (Links to the Foundation and Summary reports follow this entry.) January 2007 | PDF
Damages and costs of stormwater runoff in the Puget Sound region - Summary   | PDF
Damages and costs of stormwater runoff in the Puget Sound Region - Foundation Report University of Washington study, sponsored by the Puget Sound Partnership, that details some of the costs of stormwater runoff in the Puget Sound region. | PDF
Developing a Comprehensive Stormwater Program under the Puget Sound Water Quality Management Plan Guidance document providing greater detail on the elements of a local, comprehensive stormwater management program. Updated November 2005. | PDF
Stormwater Frequently Asked Questions Fact Sheet | PDF (688k)
Stormwater Manager's Resource Center Offers resources to technically assist decision-makers and the public on stormwater management issues. Resources include publications and manuals, slide shows, ordinance information, monitoring and assessment methods, and best management practices fact sheets.
Stormwater Strategies: Community Responses to Runoff Pollution May 1999 report from the Natural Resources Defense Council documents some of the most effective strategies being employed by communities around the country to control urban runoff pollution, which is among the top sources of water contamination in the country today.
The Water Center – University of Washington The Center provides publications, links, and research on the effects of urbanization on water resources and the effectiveness of stormwater best management practices. Also included are links to other publications and resources including the City of Olympia 's Impervious Surface Reduction Study and presentation abstracts from the Salmon in the City Conference.
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URBAN PLANNING
Urban Land Institute ULI’s mission is to provide responsible leadership in the use of land towards enhancing the environment. Site offers design resources for housing, retail, office and transportation development.
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VEGETATED ROOFS
Green Roofs for Healthy Cities Dedicated to increasing the awareness of the economic, social and environmental benefits of green roof infrastructure across North America and rapidly advancing the development of the market for green roof products and services.
Greenroofs.com A clearinghouse of information to promote green roof interest and development. Includes the history, technical details, international and North American projects and case studies, and a comprehensive annotated bibliography of green roofs literature.
City Green Building City of Seattle Web site dedicated to educating and promoting green roof technology, and sharing research, case studies, design specs and incentives.
Ecoroof City of Portland ’s highly successful Eco-roof program. Link includes tour book of downtown Portland ecoroofs. | PDF
Ecoroof Questions and Answers A Q&A produced by Portland Bureau of Environmental Services. Ecoroof Program is a cooperative effort of the Bureau of Environmental Services and the Office of Sustainable Development. The program promotes ecoroofs by researching ecoroof technologies and providing information and technical assistance to community members.
Vegetated Roof Cover A fact sheet by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Low Impact Development Center, Inc., describing a case study in Philadelphia , Pennsylvania on vegetated roofs. The study demonstrates the use of a vegetated roof to reduce runoff, conserve energy and improve community aesthetics. Includes design information and monitoring data. | PDF
For more information about the Puget Sound Partnership ’s work on stormwater management, contact Bruce Wulkan, 360.725.5455.
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